Pediatrics is the branch of medicine dealing with children and their diseases. It handles ailments in infants and older children, such as cold and flu, stomach upset, skin and diaper rashes; as well as child nutrition and growth tracking.
Cold and Flu
Although a baby is born with some of his mother’s immunity to illness — which is enhanced by breastfeeding — they’re not completely protected against the ever-changing groups of viruses that cause upper respiratory infections. This means that most healthy babies will get six to eight colds before their first birthday. Although colds occur all year round, the influenza virus usually affects a community during the winter months between November and March, and usually for only a few weeks.
It is normal for babies, especially breastfed babies, to have occasional loose stools, or poo. Stomach upsets with symptoms that include diarrhoea and vomiting are usually caused by gastroenteritis.The main concern in cases of gastroenteritis in young children under 5 years is dehydration, when the body no longer has enough fluids to perform normal functions. To avoid dehydration, babies should continue to be given breast or formula feeds.
Skin and Diaper Rashes
Diaper rash is a common condition that can make a baby’s skin sore, red, scaly, and tender. Most cases clear up with simple changes in diapering. Babies with sensitive skin also can develop rashes from certain types of detergent, soaps, diapers. Baby wipes can affect sensitive skin, causing a rash.
Child Growth Tracking
It is important for a parent to check if your child’s growth is on track or not. Growth charts let you see your child’s progress over time and compare it to the growth of a healthy child of a comparable age. They are used by pediatricians to detect failure to thrive.
Every parent wants to know about child nutrition. Healthy diets help children grow and learn better. Proper diets also help prevent obesity and weight-related diseases such as diabetes. Proper nutrition for a healthy child should provide adequate essential nutrients, fiber and energy sufficient to maintain proper growth, maximize cognitive development and promote health.
A child’s diet should provide sufficient energy intake for proper growth and development while preventing excess weight gain. The average kid can expect to grow as much as 10 inches during puberty before reaching full adult height. Most kids gain weight more rapidly during this time as the amounts of muscle, fat, and bone in their bodies change.